JEL classification: O31
The definition of the concept of innovations is specified, their classification is carried out according to various criteria, structured on product and process, and on the scale, both radical and orderly. The influence of innovations on quantitative and qualitative changes of systems is investigated. The main direction of innovation research far concerns new technological solutions such as embodied innovations. At the same time, the importance of non-embodied innovations is growing at the world’s leading companies in terms of technical and organizational level. The distribution of innovations makes sense mainly in microeconomic analysis. On a macroeconomic scale, most innovations relate to product innovation. Product innovations may be impossible to implement without changing existing production methods, and on the other hand, technological innovations may force to change the product range. The most important difference between product and process innovations is that the former is certainly more sensitive to market factors than the latter. Innovations can also be divided by their scale. There are radical and orderly innovations. Individual radical innovations generally have a much greater effect than optimization innovations. Therefore, the former is able to cause drastic changes, including technical production parameters, the latter are a source of less improvement. The study found that the key element was not only the knowledge that the company has, but also the knowledge that can be obtained from the environment. Thus, the sixth generation of the innovative model, called the self-learning system, was discovered. In the model of self-learning, the internal innovation potential of the enterprise is created by such elements as systems, skills, employees, styles and strategy, which determine the effectiveness of obtaining new knowledge and information from the market environment. In the sixth-generation model, all elements of the innovation process interact symmetrically. Individual innovation models were used by enterprises in different economic periods. Each of the models contains some important key elements related to the process of creating and implementing innovations.
Keywords: innovations, model, system, generation, enterprise, knowledge, company, discipline.
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The article was received 15.10.2021