JEL classification: Q18
Currently, food security problems are particularly acute in Ukraine, as the structure of the consumer basket is deteriorating, despite the sufficient number of calories consumed per capita. While the amount of meat and milk decreases, grain products increase, causing a deficiency of proteins, vitamins, macro- and microelements of animal origin, which leads to the so-called “hidden hunger”. In addition, there is a negative trend of deteriorating food quality. The purpose of this article is research of the dynamics and features of the formation of the food security system in the region. During the period 2008-2019, the level of food security in the region decreased by 5 out of 10 types of food security. In 2019, the indicators of the actual annual consumption of food by the population of the region such as milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fruits, berries and grapes decreased dramatically. The level of food consumption in half of the scientifically substantiated rational standards is considered critically dangerous. Examining the aspects of economic affordability of food in the region, significant reduction in the share of expenditures on household food in the structure of total expenditures for 2010-2019 up to 47.9% should be noted In addition, illusory (due to inflation during the national crisis of 2013-2014) is a quantitative increase in both monthly total aggregate expenditures and household expenditures on food. The study of the dynamics of changes in the structure of food consumption in households in the Black Sea region revealed a decrease in the share of the vast majority (8 out of 10) of species food consumption (in terms of primary product) on average per month per person for 2019. Steady high level of food consumption, other things being equal, gives grounds to draw conclusions about the stability of food supply, and analyzing the structure of food consumption, we can characterize the completeness of nutrition. The need to ensure food security in the region requires maintaining an appropriate level of food self-sufficiency, which involves the use of state support for domestic agri-food producers and measures to control the import of food and food products to protect their own producers from foreign competition.
Key words: food security, food basket, organizational and economic mechanism, food security index, system of strategic priorities.
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The article was received 18.07.2020