УДК: 330.83

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36887/2415-8453-2021-3-12

Olha PETRENKO
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Odesa State Agrarian University
Natalia ZGADOVA
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Odesa National Academy of Food Technologies

JEL classification: B20

Abstract

The development of the economy of the Ukrainian SSR during the 1960s and 1980s was influenced by scientific and technological progress. Scientists from universities and the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR played an important role in the formation of an efficient national economy. The theoretical basis and the formation of a powerful staff training were carried out by universities, among which an important place belonged to Kyiv University. There were 11 faculties in Taras Shevchenko Kyiv State University (classical research university), where 17 scientific schools were established and functioned during the research period. Fruitful work was carried out in the following scientific areas: ecological and geographical analysis, polymers and compositions with a special set of properties, modeling and optimization of information systems, development and transformation of economic systems, hydrochemistry and hydroecology, stochastic systems theory and ap-plied statistics and so on. The Kyiv Polytechnic Institute was another scientific benchmark. As part of the institute, strong scientific ties have been established with the enterprises of the national economy. With the participation of the institute, training, research and production associations were created (such as “Electronics”, “Cybernetics and Metrology”, “Hydraulic Drive”, etc.). During 1975-1986, the transfer of agreements on the use of best practices was increased, 3,158 developments were introduced into the national economy, and 267 economic contract works with almost 400 mil-lion rubles of economic effect were introduced. An important contribution to the scientific and technological development of the economy was made by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. By developing fruitful cooperation with the manufacturing sector, the scientists of the Academy of Sciences managed to increase the extra-budgetary allocation, which sometimes reached half of the state funding. Scientists of the Academy of Sciences successfully conducted theoretical and experimental research in more than 200 scientific fields, made 18 discoveries in various fields of science (physics, chemistry, biology and hundreds of inventions in natural and technical sciences) in the mid-1980s. During the 1980s, scientific work was transferred into the plane of complex programs of scientific and technological progress. The results of scientific and technical development were of great economic importance and provided qualitative changes in the indicators of material consumption and material efficiency, capital intensity and capital efficiency, energy availability and energy supply, etc. Structural changes in the sectors of the economy have led to an increase in electricity costs for the production needs of food, forestry, oil and gas, paper and woodworking, light industry, chemical and mining complex. The formation of the chain “science – national economy” included training of scientific personnel and specialists in various fields, development of theoretical and basic research, practical implementation of scientific inventions, extension of best practices, development of technologies and industrial patterns by enterprises of national economy.

Keywords: economic development, scientific and technical development, scientific research, scientific-educational-industrial associations, economic thought, national economy, economy.

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The article was received 16.06.2021