JEL classification: F6; Q18
Introduction. At the end of 2019, almost 690 million people or 8.9% of the world population experienced physical and moral sufferings as a result of the deficit of edible food with a proper nutritious value. The lack of food became lethal for many people. On 20 August, 2020,
7134 thousand people died of starvation. The most deplorable fact is that the third part of those who died of starvation is children. Besides chronic famine, more and more people are facing the problem of temporary famine or malnutrition, i.e. forced decrease of food consumed and its quality. Two billion people or 25.9% of the world population didn’t have regular access to a sufficient amount of nutritious food in 2019. Deficit of nutritious calories, low quality of food and its imbalance result in physical and mental development delay of people. Losses of labor productivity because of famine can cause GDP decrease per capita by 6-10%.
The Purpose is the advancement of urgent problems of famine and lack of delivery for the implementation of the concept of stable development in the framework of the global economy.
Results. The main reasons of the current scale of famine and malnutrition could be the following: 1) reduction of land areas suitable for agricultural production; 2) increase of food raw materials for biofuel production; 3) increase of the fresh water deficit; 4) change of the climate causing the frequency and the scale of devastating floods, droughts, fires, hurricanes, etc.; 5) poverty; 6) pandemic COVID-19; 7) military conflicts. Solution of the global problem of famine and malnutrition requires a complex approach. Analysis of the factors causing this problem shows that the application of the previous approaches is not sufficient under current conditions. We think that the top-priority task in the task list of UNO aimed at the achievement of zero hunger is the prevention of further climate changes, immediate adaptation of local systems of agricultural production to new conditions, preservation and extensive restoration of the resource potential of rural territories. Mentioned tasks correspond to the fulfillment of the conditions of sustainable development. It means that the implementation of the concept of sustainable development within the global economy is a powerful tool to solve the global issue of famine and malnutrition.
Keywords: famine and malnutrition, arable land, biofuels, fresh water deficit, climate change, poverty, COVID-19, military conflicts, sustainable development.
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The article was received 11.03.2020